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    老子故里研究:關于“陽子居南之沛”之我見
    老子故里研究:
       關于“陽子居南之沛”之我見
    石小生 


        在鹿邑、渦陽兩地關于老子故里的爭論中,《莊子·寓言》中提到的陽子居“南之沛見老聃”之事是“渦陽說”學者經常提到的一個證據。我們可以先看一下《莊子·寓言》的原文:
      “陽子居南之沛,老聃西游于秦,邀于郊,至于梁而遇老子。老子中道仰天而嘆曰:‘始以汝為可教,今不可也。’陽子居不答。至舍,進盥漱巾櫛,脫屨戶外,膝行而前曰:‘向者弟子欲請夫子,夫子行不閑,是以不敢。今閑矣,請問其過。’老子曰:‘而睢睢盱盱,而誰與居?大白若辱,盛德若不足。’陽子居蹴然變容曰:‘敬聞命矣!’其往也,舍者迎將。其家公執席,妻執巾櫛,舍者避席,煬者避灶。其反也,舍者與之爭席矣。”同樣的記載,《列子·黃帝第二》記為:“楊朱南之沛,老聃西游于秦,邀于郊。至梁而遇老子。”大同小異。
       對這段記載,“渦陽說”學者強調:《莊子·寓言》中記有陽子居“南之沛見老聃”事,可見老子是沛地人士。《戰國策·秦四》上講的宋之相地與沛很近,《漢書·地理志》也記載了沛郡之縣有相,故相也為沛之相,因此有了陽子居‘南之沛見老聃’之事。《莊子》成書早于《史記》,并且莊子是較早的道家傳人代表,對老子的了解應該很清楚。去掉《莊子》中的寓言成份,大都可信,所謂“重言十七”。姚鼐說得好:“莊子尤古,宜得其真。”(《莊子章義序》)(以上觀點選自《學術界》1997年增刊 作者:安徽大學哲學博士 夏當英)
    以陽子居“南之沛見老聃”之事就可以證明老子是沛地人士,并進一步證明老子故里是在渦陽縣嗎?且不論春秋時期的沛地與歷史上為夷邑、城父的渦陽縣是風馬牛不相及的兩個地方,就算“宋之相地與沛很近”,今天的渦陽縣地屬于西漢時期設立的沛郡,《莊子·寓言》中記有陽子居“南之沛見老聃”難道就可以證明老子是沛地人士、證明渦陽縣是老子故里嗎?
        好在莊子的這篇文章不長,我們可以認真分析一下:
       陽子居為虛擬人物名,即楊朱。楊朱,先秦哲學家,戰國時期魏國(今河南開封市)人,字子居。《莊子·寓言》中提到的幾個地名和關鍵詞分別是:
       沛,在今江蘇沛縣。這個沛與西漢時期設立的、郡治在相縣(今安徽淮北市境內),管轄21個縣的沛郡是不同的概念,屬于包含關系。春秋沛地屬宋,春秋末,齊、楚、魏滅宋,楚得沛地,設縣。秦建沛縣,屬泗水郡,西漢析泗水郡設沛郡,沛縣屬沛郡。到了東漢,沛郡改為沛國,仍轄沛、豐、單等縣。漢以后人們為了區別沛縣和沛郡、沛國,便稱沛郡、沛國為大沛,而所轄之沛縣便習慣稱為小沛了。這一習慣稱謂直到南北朝的北齊結束。北齊天保元年(550年)撤銷沛郡,沛縣隸屬彭城郡(今徐州市),大沛、小沛之稱不復存在。此后文史書籍中出現之沛皆指沛縣,即小沛。秦,在今陜西省。梁,在今河南開封。邀,就是邀請、約定。郊,就是郊外,《爾雅》:“邑外謂之郊,郊外謂之牧,牧外謂之野”。“邑”,一般指城邑、都邑、采邑等。“郊”,《周禮》曰:“距國百里為郊”。《說文》按:“周時距離國都五十里的地方叫近郊,百里的地方叫遠郊。”《周禮》杜子春注云:“五十里為近郊。”周制,天子畿內千里,遠郊百里,以此差之,遠郊,上公五十里,侯四十里,伯三十里,子二十里,男十里也,近郊各半之。以當時沛有“郊”的狀況,“陽子居南之沛”的“沛”應該是一個城邑而不是沛澤,因為“沛澤”是無法確定其“郊”之所在的,故“邀于郊”的“郊”就在沛邑附近,也就是一二十里的范圍內。舍,就是驛館、館舍,《說文》:“客店也。周禮之廬也,路室也,候館也,皆是。”《莊子·說劍》:“夫子休就舍。”中國古代行軍以三十里為一舍,《左傳·僖公二十三年》:“微楚之惠不及此,退三舍避之,所以報也。”杜預注:“一舍,三十里。”我們把這幾個基本概念搞清楚了,莊子的這段話理解起來也就不難了。
       《莊子·寓言》的大意是:陽子居往南到沛地去,正巧老聃要到西邊的秦地閑游,陽子居便與其邀約在沛地的郊野相會,但沒有遇到,又西行到了梁才見上了面。老子仰天長嘆說:“當初我把你看作是可教的人,如今看來你是不可教的。”陽子居一句話也沒說。在老子下榻的旅舍,陽子居進上盥洗用具,把鞋子脫在門外,雙腳跪著上前說道:“剛才弟子正想請教先生,可是先生旅途中沒有空閑,不敢冒然啟齒。現在閑暇,懇請先生指出我的過錯。”老聃說:“你仰頭張目傲慢跋扈,那你還能夠跟誰相處?常言說:潔白至極好像不太那么潔白,德性至極好像不太那么圓足。”陽子居聽了臉色大變羞慚不安地說:“弟子由衷地接受先生的教誨。”陽子居剛到沛地旅舍(見老子的時候),舍里人都出來迎接并恭請入內,男主人安排坐席,女主人拿來毛巾梳子侍候盥洗,舍里人又為他讓座,近火者也都遠離火灶。等到他(與老子談話之后)離舍返回時,舍里人已經跟他爭席而坐了。
    在莊子的這段文字中,我們應當注意以下幾點:一,陽子居住在沛的北邊,他先往南走,與居于沛邑南邊的老子相約于沛邑的郊外見面。也就是說《莊子·寓言》里提到的“沛”、“郊”即不是陽子居的故里,也不是老子的故里,而是他們相約見面的地方。二,這個“南之沛”的“沛”應該是一個城邑,而不是“渦陽說”所理解的“沛澤”或包括相縣以及再往南約300里的城父縣(今渦陽縣)很大一片地方的所謂“沛地”了。三,如果陽子居與老子相邀的這個“沛郊”是老子故里,那么,他們的見面就不會用“邀于郊”,而應該直接用“南之沛見老聃”就可以了。所以,“渦陽說”論證這個問題的前提就是不對的,沒有“陽子居南之沛見老聃”之說,只有“陽子居南之沛,老聃西游于秦,邀于郊,至于梁而遇老子”這樣的記載,“陽子居南之沛見老聃”的情景乃“渦陽說”杜撰。四,陽子居與老子真正見面的地方不是沛地,而是沛地東邊的梁(今商丘市)。五,老子不是在家中等陽子居上門拜訪,而是在旅途中的驛舍之內,老子先是離開故里到了約定的地方“沛郊”,未見陽子居,又西行至梁,在梁的驛舍內與陽子居見面后,再西行于秦。這從“進盥漱巾櫛,脫屨戶外”,“夫子行不閑”等細節中可見一斑。館舍和“故里”應該是截然不同的兩個概念。
       從這一段文字中,我們絲毫看不出一丁點兒老子故里在現今渦陽縣的任何蛛絲馬跡,倒是可以由此否定《莊子·寓言》中“渦陽說”認定的老子故里與沛地的關系。“沛”在《莊子·寓言》里僅僅是老子西行路過之地,而絕非是老子的西行出發之地。由此可見,“渦陽說”學者以《莊子·寓言》中記有陽子居“南之沛見老聃”這個根本不存在的前提來證明老子是沛地人士,進而望文生義、移花接木到現今的渦陽縣,是有點斷章取義、異想天開了。
    既然我們從《莊子·寓言》中看出“陽子居南之沛”不是當時老子的故里和住所,那么老子當時是從什么地方出發經“沛”,至梁見陽子居,再而“西游于秦”的呢?
       從《老子年譜》我們可以看出,周敬王四年、魯昭公二十六年(前516年)老子56歲時,因所管典籍被王子朝攜至楚國,被罷免守藏室史一職,回故里相縣居住。次年,老子57歲,因王朝圖書被運走,老子失去職位,去往秦國。先秦史書中,除了《莊子·寓言》記載的“陽子居南之沛”以外,《列子·周穆王》也記載了一則老子與陳國關系的事:“逢氏有子少而惠,及壯而有迷罔之疾……其父之魯,過陳,遇老聃,因告其子之證”。“過陳”就是由秦至魯經過陳國,在這里遇到了老子。縱觀老子一生,除21歲以前生活在故里以外,其他大多數時間都是在周王室任守藏室史,回故鄉居住就這么一次,而后“入秦”,再后71歲時在沛地見孔子一次,87歲時去關入秦,途中為函谷關令尹喜挽留,撰寫《道德經》,后不知所終。我們從《莊子·寓言》和《列子·周穆王》對老子言行的描述可以斷定此時老子絕非21歲以前的老子,而只能是五十余歲其學說完全形成了的老子。由此可見,逢氏“過陳,遇老聃”是在“陽子居南之沛,老聃西游于秦”是前后相距很近的同一時期的兩個記載,逢氏“過陳,遇老聃”在“陽子居南之沛”之前的一年之內。故不論老子故里是在那里,由此可證老子見陽子居的出發之地是陳國,而非其他任何地方,包括那個所謂的“宋之相”。
    (寫于2012年11月20日)


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