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    《水經注》中的老子故里
    陳隆文
          對于老子故里,《史記·老子韓非列傳》載之甚明:“老子者,楚苦縣厲鄉曲仁里人也,姓李氏,名耳,字聃,周守藏室之史也。”正義引《括地志》云:“苦縣在亳州谷陽縣界。有老子宅及廟,廟中有九井尚存,在今亳州真源縣也。”厲音賴。晉《太康地記》云:“苦縣城東有瀨鄉祠,老子所生地也。”楚就是古代楚國,苦縣即唐代真源縣,也就是今鹿邑縣,厲鄉(或作“瀨鄉、賴鄉”)就是縣城東的太清宮鄉,而曲仁里就是今鄉政府所在地——太清宮鎮。這本是一樁鐵案,自漢代以來少有疑問。可近年來,有關老子故里的認識又出現了否定《史記》舊說的亳州渦陽說,因而引起了相當激烈的爭論。我注意到,無論支持舊說還是推尚新說,其在論證資料的采擇上往往都以酈道元《水經注》卷二十三《陰溝水》作依據。在這里,本文通過對酈氏《水經注》中有關資料的研究,進一步辨析兩說真偽,并據以認為《史記》舊說之可信。不當之處,敬希指教。
    一、應全面、準確理解古代地理文獻
          《水經注》卷二十三記載了有關老子和老子故里的史料。此章專記陰溝水、汳水和獲水。《水經》經文說“陰溝水出河南陽武縣蒗蕩渠。”蒗蕩渠即渠水,說明陰溝水是從渠水中分流而出的。經文又說陰溝水“東南至沛,為渦水。”那么陰溝水就應該是渦水的上源。酈道元在談陰溝、蒗蕩、沙水和渦水四者關系時說:“陰溝始亂蒗蕩,終別于沙,而渦水出焉。”意思是陰溝水先流入蒗蕩渠,最后又從沙水分出,成為渦水,也就是說渦水是從沙水中分出,渦水、沙水的上源都是從黃河里分出的陰溝水。
          渦水自沙水分出以后,按酈道元所記“濄水逕大扶城西,……又東南逕陽夏縣西,又東逕邈城北,……又東逕大棘城南。”大扶城即扶樂城,楊守敬《水經注疏》謂扶樂城在太康縣四十里,陽夏縣城即今太康縣治。邈城,在太康縣東南。大棘城南,《括地志》:“大棘故城在寧陵縣西南七十里。”《太平寰宇記》:“在柘城縣西北三十里,以后轉屬寧陵,復屬柘城矣。在今柘城縣西北。從以上所記可知渦河河道尚在太康縣境而未入今鹿邑境。《水經注》中所記渦河河道古今差別很大,在現在太康縣境,今渦河自縣西北芝麻洼流入,在穿過太康縣城東北角后向東南流入今柘城、鹿邑境內。而《水經注》中的河道卻在今太康縣城以西。在太康縣城西常營鎮、清集、獨塘一線至今仍有老渦河的河道。此老渦河河道又經太康縣城南毛莊鎮向東,在水牛陳、顧樓、大施莊之間與今天渦河河道交匯。由是推知,《水經注》中的渦河河道是在繞行今太康縣城以西后,又經太康縣城的西南方向,經常營鎮、遜母口鎮、大許寨、馬廠鎮一線附近地區,向東流進入鹿邑境內。而太康境內的老渦河河道很可能就是《水經注》中的渦河舊道。
          渦河在入鹿邑縣境后,注文中記載了大量與老子故里有關的史料。現將此段渦水引錄如下:“渦水又東逕安平縣故城北,《陳留風俗傳》曰:大棘鄉,故安平縣也。士人敦惷,易以統御。渦水又東逕鹿邑城北,世謂之虎鄉城,非也。《春秋》之鳴鹿矣。杜預曰:陳國武平西南有鹿邑亭是也。城南十里有晉中散大夫胡均碑,元康八年立。渦水之北有漢溫令許續碑,續字嗣公,陳國人也,舉賢良,拜議郎,遷溫令。延熹中立。渦水又東逕武平縣故城北。城之西南七里許,有漢尚書令虞詡碑,碑題云:虞君之碑。諱詡,字定安,虞仲之后。為朝歌令、武都太守。文字多缺,不復可尋。按范曄《漢書》,詡字升卿,陳國武平人。祖為縣獄吏,治存寬恕,嘗曰:于公為里門,子為丞相,吾雖不及于公,子孫不必不為九卿。故字詡曰升卿。安定,蓋其幼字也。魏武王初封于此,終以武平、華夏矣。渦水又東逕廣鄉城北,圈稱曰:襄邑有蛇丘亭,故廣鄉矣。改曰廣世。后漢順帝陽嘉四年,封侍中摯填為侯國,即廣鄉也。渦水又東逕苦縣西南。分為二水。枝流東北注,于賴城入谷,謂死渦也。渦水又東南屈,逕苦縣故城南。《郡國志》曰:春秋之相也。王莽更名之曰賴陵矣。城之四門,列筑馳道,東起賴鄉,南自南門,越水直指故臺,西面南門,列道徑趣廣鄉道西門馳道。西屆武平北門馳道,暨于北臺。渦水又東北屈,至賴鄉西,谷水注之。……渦水又東逕老子廟東。廟前有二碑,在南門外。漢桓帝遷中官管霸祠老子,命陳相邊韶撰文;碑北有雙石闕,甚整頓。石闕南側,魏文帝黃初三年經譙所勒;闕北東側,有孔子廟,廟前有一碑,西面,是陳相魯國孔疇建和三年立。北則老君廟,廟東院中有九井焉。又北,渦水之側,又有李母廟。廟在老子廟北,廟前有李母冢。冢東有碑,是永興元年譙令長沙王阜所立。碑云:老子生于曲、渦間。渦水又屈東,逕相縣故城南,其城卑小實中。邊韶《老子碑》文云:老子,楚相縣人也。相縣虛荒,今屬苦,故城猶存,在賴鄉之東。渦水處其陽。疑即此城也。自是無郭以應之。渦水又東,逕譙縣故城北。《春秋左傳》:僖公二十二年,楚成的臣帥師伐陳,遂取譙,城頓而還是也。王莽之延成亭也。魏立譙郡,沇州治。沙水自南枝分,北逕譙城西,而北注濄。……渦水又東南,逕城父縣故城北,沙水枝分注之。”
          按酈道元在《水經注》中所言,渦水在今鹿邑縣境內的經行是較為明確的。渦水東逕安平縣故城北,鹿邑城北、武平縣故城北,廣鄉城北,東南屈后逕苦縣故城南,賴鄉北逕老子廟東,又北經李母廟、相縣故城南。向東再逕譙縣故城北,在譙縣故城西渦水已入今安徽境內,渦水再東南,在今安徽境內經城父故城北,下城父城北,渦陽故城北,龍亢縣故城南至渦口城入于淮水,這是《水經注》中渦河河道的基本狀況。而上述渦水所經由的城邑大部分遺址尚存,安平縣故城,楊守敬按,今有安平集,在鹿邑縣西北七十里。鹿邑城,在今鹿邑縣西六十里。武平縣故城在今鹿邑縣西四十里。廣鄉城在今鹿邑西。苦縣故城、賴鄉城在今鹿邑縣東十里。老子廟、李母廟、李母冢都在今鹿邑縣東。相縣故城在今鹿邑縣東十五里。譙縣故城,在今安徽亳州市。城父故城,又名夷邑,治所在今安徽亳州市東南七十里。渦陽在今蒙城縣。龍亢縣故城在今懷遠縣西北七十五里。在這里應該強調說明的是今天的渦陽縣并非《水經注》中的渦陽,今渦陽漢為城父、山桑、至縣地,清同治三年(1864),由亳州、宿州、阜陽、蒙城析置渦陽縣,乃因襲北魏渦陽縣名,其距北魏蒙城渦陽約30~40公里。因此,從《水經注》中記載的有關老子故里的遺跡來看,至少在北魏以前,能說明為老子故里的文物遺存都集中在今鹿邑城以東,即苦縣故城東、相縣故城以西的東西十余里范圍之內。而今天安徽境內的譙縣故城、城父故城、渦陽城均在相縣故城以東。而今天渦陽縣在北魏時尚未有行政建制,其處在古城父與古渦陽城,也就是今城父集與蒙城之間,偏于《水經注》中所記載的老子故里東南110余公里,該地沒有任何老子遺物和遺跡的可尋,因此老子故里在今渦陽縣說是難以成立的。
          由于鹿邑縣渦水沿岸是真正的老子故里,所以自漢代以來保存了大量紀念老子的石刻和碑文,其中見于酈道元《水經注》的有《李母冢碑》和邊韶《老子碑》兩種,此兩塊石碑碑文均被嚴可均《全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文》收錄,極有價值,其中李母冢前石碑是永興元年譙縣縣令長沙人王阜所立,此碑全名《老子圣母李夫人碑》碑文曰:“老子者,道也,乃生于無形之先,起于太初之前,行于太素之元,浮游六虛,出入幽冥,觀混合之未別,窺清濁之未分。”從碑文內容上看,此碑完全是紀念性質。立碑者是漢桓帝永興元年的譙縣縣令長沙人王阜。東漢譙縣縣治在今鹿邑縣城東25公里的今亳州市譙城區,譙縣縣令立碑紀念老子不在今安徽渦陽縣,而在其西的今鹿邑太清宮鎮,正說明《史記》老子故里苦縣厲鄉曲仁里之說在當時是無人置疑,而在今天也是值得信從的。
    二、《水經注》中谷水的流向與今天渦陽武家河不符
          老子故里渦陽說的又一依據是“渦陽縣境內的武家河,古名谷水,老子出生地天靜宮位于武家河入渦處,故可說:‘谷水處其陽’可知老子故里在渦陽。”老莊先生將渦陽武家河水當做古代的谷水,并據認為這是老子故里在渦陽的又一證據。
          渦陽縣境內的武家河是不是《水經注》中的谷水呢?從酈道元所記谷水自源頭、經行及至賴鄉附近入渦水的河道來看,谷水根本流不到今亳州渦陽縣境。《水經注》中谷水全文如下:“谷水首受渙水于襄邑縣東,東逕承匡城東。《春秋經》書:夏,叔仲、彭生會晉郤缺于承匡。《左傳》曰:謀諸侯之從楚者。京相璠曰:今陳留襄邑西三十里有故承匡城。谷水又東南逕巳吾縣故城西。《陳留風俗傳》曰:縣,故宋也,雜以陳、楚之地,故梁國寧陵縣之徙種龍鄉也。以成、哀之世,戶至八九千,冠帶之徒求置縣矣。永元十一年,陳王削地,以大棘鄉、直陽鄉,十二年,自鄢隸之,命以嘉名曰巳吾,猶有陳、楚之俗焉。谷水又東逕柘縣故城東。《地理志》,淮陽之屬縣也。城內有柘令許君《清德頌》,石碎字紊,惟此文見碑。城西南里許,有漢陽臺令許叔種碑,光和中立;又有漢故樂成陵令太尉掾許嬰碑,嬰字虞卿,司隸校尉之子,建寧元年立。余碑文字碎滅,不復可觀,當似司隸諸碑也。谷水又東逕苦縣故城中,水泛則四周隍壍,耗則孤津獨逝。谷水又東逕賴鄉城南,其城實中,東北隅有臺偏高,俗以是臺在谷水北,其城又謂之谷陽臺,非也。谷水自此東入濄水。”
          由酈道元所記,我們知道,谷水并非一條大水,從源頭到尾閭,《水經注》記載確鑿。谷水在襄邑縣城東從渙水中流出,逕承匡城東,又東南逕巳吾縣故城西,再東逕柘城縣東,之后穿過苦縣故城,在賴鄉城南東入渦水。注文中所說的襄邑縣在今河南雎縣西。承匡城,在今河南雎縣西三十里匡城鄉。巳吾縣故城,在今寧陵縣西南四十里。柘縣故城,即今柘城縣城。賴鄉城在今鹿邑縣東十里,谷水在賴鄉城南入渦。所以熊會貞在《水經注疏》按語中說:“(谷)水自今雎州東,東南流經寧陵縣,柘城縣,至鹿邑縣,東北入渦。”此言大體正確。這條水道大體是經雎縣西,經寧陵、柘城兩城,至今鹿邑縣入渦水,其西距安徽亳州數十公里。而渦陽境內的武家河雖為渦河支流,雖源出河南商丘縣城北山丘,但其主要部分在安徽省北部,沿商丘與虞城縣界南流,經安徽省亳州市東,至渦陽縣城中入渦河,全長127公里。因此,以武家河為《水經注》谷水的看法與古代文獻不符合,《水經注》中的谷水不在今渦陽縣境。老莊先生之說無文獻根據。
    三、《水經注》中的相縣故城在鹿邑境內
          《水經注》中的相縣故城是確定老子故里在今鹿邑縣境的重要坐標。按《水經注》所言相縣故城在老子故里與譙城之間,相縣故城之西有苦縣故城、賴鄉城、老子廟、李母廟、李母冢等。相縣故城之東則是譙城,曹氏冢群和城父故城。相縣故城在兩漢至隋唐之間,屬于苦縣,所以酈道元才說“相縣虛荒,今屬苦,故城猶存,在賴鄉之東,渦水處其陽。”這里所說的賴鄉,于宋代樂史《太平寰宇記》有記。《太平寰宇記》引崔元山《瀨鄉記》說:“李母祠在老子祠北三里。祠門內右有圣母碑,東院內有九井。”《述征記》:“廟內九井,或云汲一井,而八井動。”《輿地志》“老子祠,即老子所生舊宅。”《太平寰宇記》卷十二瀨水條下也清楚地記載:“瀨水,在縣東南十二里。于苦縣界相縣故城西南五里谷水分流,入靈溪池,東入渦水。相縣在瀨水東是也。”這說明至少在宋代,當時“苦縣界”確有“瀨鄉”和“相縣故城”,其確切方位是:瀨鄉在“縣(城)東南12里”,在“相縣故城西5里”;而相縣故城在賴鄉東5里,距當時苦縣治所也僅僅17里之遙。因此相縣故城的地望對于我們尋找老子故里有極其重要的價值。
          那么相縣故城究竟應在何處?楊守敬按:“《一統志》,秦時相縣,非漢沛郡治之相縣。《寰宇記》,相縣在瀨水東。在今鹿邑縣東十五里。”也就是說楊守敬認為相縣故城在今鹿邑縣東十五里。從鹿邑縣城向東十五里正好是今太清宮鎮附近。仔細考察太清宮鎮附近地形,我們的目光聚焦到渦河北岸上的一處高地,可能由于渦水改道時激流沖刷而過,且歷代受河流雨水沖刷嚴重,這塊高地現在只剩下半公里大小。它位于太清宮鎮東北方向,與《瀨鄉記》所說相縣故城在“瀨鄉東”吻合。與此高地隔河相望的是南岸的抄紙店村,該村距太清宮鎮大約3華里,加上渦水寬約1公里,高地距太清宮鎮的遠近與《瀨鄉記》、《歷代疆域表》相合無間。其次,當地父老至今仍稱高地為“谷陽城”。這個自古相傳的地名,不僅令人想到上引晉成帝成康三年更名谷陽縣,直至唐乾封元年才更名真源的事實,以及邊韶、酈道元“相縣荒虛,今屬苦”的記載。這均可證明當地所傳“谷陽城”之名完全有根有據,決非空穴來風。至此,這個撲朔迷離的“相縣故城”的地理位置終于有了完全合乎清理的理解。
          因此,由文獻中所記相縣故城位置來看,至少在北魏以前能夠證明為老子故里的遺物均分布在相縣故城以西的今鹿邑縣境內,與今亳州渦陽沒任何關系。故今安徽渦陽為老子故里之說應屬無據之論。
    (作者為鄭州大學歷史學院副教授)

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