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    老子思想與道教煉養學的心腦關系

    老子思想與道教煉養學的心腦關系

     

      “心主神明”是中國傳統醫學的核心論點和理論特色所在。明代李時珍雖然提出了“腦為元神之府”一說,但是并未作明確的解說,而在《本草綱目》的藥理分析中,李時珍依然遵從的是傳統醫學的心主神明之說。而此后的傳統醫學領域,關于“腦主神明”和“心主神明”的討論成為一個頗多爭議的理論問題。實際上李時珍“腦為元神之府”的說法出自道教。在道教煉養學中,“腦主神明”與“心主神明”二說并存,而且以老子的思想和諧地相統一。

      在道教相關的煉養內容中,涉及此問題者甚多,但早期以《黃庭內景經》(一下簡稱《黃庭經》)的論述最為全面、深刻、并具有系統性。《黃庭經》產生于東晉之前,是一部以存思身神為主要手段的道教養生學經典,其身神之說“因象立名”, 一方面具有明顯的宗教神學色彩,一方面具有濃厚的醫學生理學內涵。而其中關于心腦與神明關系的認識正是通過人格化的身神之說體現出來的。

      通過對比分析來看,在《黃庭經》中,腦神與心神呈現出兩種不同的特征:

      其一, 腦神靜而無為,心神動而有為。關于心神,一方面,“心神一體五藏王”,心為五臟六腑之主而稱為“王”,顯示了其尊貴的一面;另一方面心神又擔負著協調人體榮衛、氣血、陰陽,主宰五臟六腑的生理機能正常運行,即所謂“主適寒熱榮衛和”,“調血理命身不枯,外應口舌吐五華”, “通利華精調陰陽”,梁丘子注云:“心神用舍與目相應,‘華精’,目精也,心開則目開,晝陽而暮陰,故云‘調陰陽’也”。

      這些職責無疑是繁劇的、動態而永不停息的。可見,《黃庭經》對心的認識與傳統醫學的論述是一致的。

      關于腦神,道教素稱泥丸,《黃庭經》云:“泥丸百節皆有神”;“一面之神尊泥丸,泥丸九真皆有房,方圓一寸處此中,同服紫衣飛羅裳”; 梁丘子注曰:“腦神丹田,百神之主”;“丹田之宮,黃庭之舍,洞房之主,陰陽之根”。在這些描述中,泥丸神只是突出了其尊貴靜處的特征,沒有顯現出活動性的功能。

      也就是說,腦神與心神相比較,具有一靜一動的特點。腦神尊貴而為百神之主,但安靜而沒有具體職責;心神為五臟六腑之王而主宰調理人體生理的運行,職能復雜而運動不已。

      進一步來看,這種一動一靜的特征,在老子思想的主導下還具有更深一層的內涵。從《黃庭經》的主導思想看,老子的恬淡虛無、清靜無為是其煉養術的最高宗旨。

      經文中多處強調“恬淡閉視內自明”; “高拱無為魂魄安,清靜神見與我言”; “內守堅固真之真,虛中恬淡自致神”; “隱景藏形與世殊,……帶執性命守虛無” 等。在腦九宮神中,《黃庭經》和其他上清派關于修持九宮神的方法一樣,貫穿著老子“知其雄,守其雌”、“知其白,守其黑”的思想,如“知雄守雌可無老,知白見黑見坐守”, “守雌存雄頂三光” 之類均是。所以其中腦神和心神一動一靜的特征實際上還具有腦神無為、心神有為的含意。

      其二,腦神比心神更具有根本性地位。腦神為百神之主、陰陽之根,自然是人體生命的主宰和核心所在;心神為五臟六腑之主宰,調節人體陰陽、主持人體生命活動的健康運行,同樣是生命的主宰與核心。那么腦神與心神二者在人體生命中究竟以何者更為根本呢? 這一點也需要用老子的思想來解釋。

      在《黃庭經》中,以心神為核心的五臟神與眼、耳、鼻、舌諸神的關系是這樣的:心神“外應口舌吐五華”, 又云“用舍與目相應”;肺神“外應中岳鼻齊位”; 肝神“外應眼目日月精”; 腎神“外應兩耳百液津”; 脾神“外應尺宅氣色芳”。

      可見,雖然心為五臟六腑之主宰,五臟主持調節著各相應關竅的生理機能,但在《黃庭經》中它們之間的關系被描述為一種“外應”和“相應”的對等關系,而不是主宰與服從的隸屬關系。與腦神之受眼、耳、鼻、舌等諸神的受尊崇相比較,這種對等關系也間接地表達了腦神和心神之間的相互關系。那就是,眼、耳、鼻、舌各關竅通過五臟的調節保證了各自功能的正常運行,而將其所取得的高級生理功能——感知功能歸于腦神主宰。這也就是說,以心臟為核心的五臟維持調節各感官的生理活動,從而也主宰著五官感知功能的正常發揮;而五官的感知功能最后還得歸宗于腦神,為腦神泥丸服務,也就是說,而腦神泥丸主宰各感官的精神性的感知行為。

      老子崇尚無為,《道德經》不斷強調:“道常無為,而無不為”; “上德無為,而無以為;下德為之,而有以為”; “萬物歸焉而不為主,可名為大。是以圣人終不為大,故能成其大。”

      而《黃庭經》中腦神靜處無為而尊貴,心神多動有為而為五臟六腑之主宰。于是腦神頗合于《老子》的“無為”、“上德”和“圣人”的境界;而心神則頗合于《老子》“有為”、“下德”的狀態。于是,腦神相對于心神,“故能成其大”,地位高于心神。

      另外,《黃庭經》對腦神的存思修煉內容命名為“至道章”,也說明了腦神在人體中的根本地位,在《道德經》中,“道隱無名”、“先天地生”,是至高無上的。

      《莊子?在宥》中為黃帝講說的“窈窈冥冥”、“昏昏默默”的至道直承《道德經》而來,是陰陽之所“藏”(“天地有官,陰陽有藏”)。

      又《陰符經》有“人知其神而神,不知不神所以神也”句。唐李筌注云:“陰陽生萬物,人謂之神,不知有至道,靜然而不神,能生萬物陰陽,為至神矣。”

      《黃庭經》正是將腦神的修持稱為“至道”,梁丘子注謂腦中丹田為 “陰陽之根”,即陰陽為腦神所生、所藏;而心神的功能在于“調陰陽”,兩者地位、功用迥然不同;又腦中丹田為“百神之主”,心神只為五臟六腑之主,兩者之

      間的地位也明顯不同。

      從以上諸多因素均可看出,在《黃庭經》中,腦神的地位在心神之上,并具有更為根本的地位。

      我們從其他道教經典的描述中,也可以看出同樣的內容。如出自唐代的《太上老君內觀經》云:太一帝君在頭,曰泥丸君,總眾神也。照生識神,人之魂也;司命處心,納心源也;無英居左,制三魂也;白元居右,拘七魄也;桃孩住臍,保精根也。照諸百節,生百神也。所以周身神不空也。元氣入鼻,灌泥丸也。所以神明,形固安也。運動住止,關其心也。所以謂生有由然也。子內視之,歷歷分也。心者禁也,一身之主,禁制形神,使不邪也。心則神也,變化不測,無定形也。所以五藏藏五神也;魂在肝,魄在肺,精在腎,志在脾,神在心。所以字殊,隨處名也。心者火也,南方太陽之精,主火,上為熒惑,下應心也。色赤三葉,如蓮花,神明依泊,從所名也。其神也,非青非白,非赤非黃;非大非小,非短非長;非曲非直,非柔非剛,非厚非薄、非圓非方;變化莫測,混合陰陽;大包天地,細入毫芒;制之則正,放之則狂;清靜則生,濁躁則亡;明照八表,暗迷一方。但能虛寂,生道自常;永保無為,其身則昌。世以無形,莫之能名。禍福吉兇,悉由之矣。

      本段內容豐富,概而言之,其所論腦神與心神的特征及相互關系至少有以下幾點。

      其一,腦神泥丸“總眾神”,尊貴而為百神之主;同時腦神為眾神的根源,即“照生識神,人之魂也”,“照諸百節,生百神也。所以周身神不空也”。可見,是腦神賦予了肌體以生命和精神,腦神是人體生命的根本主宰;而心神為眾神之一,為腦神映照所生,故而只能從屬于腦神。

      其二,腦神首先賦予生命組織活的機能并使產生精神,心神則主宰后天生命機體的運行和人有意識的行為,即“運動住止,關其心也。”“心者禁也,一身之主,禁制形神,使不邪也。”

      其三,腦神虛靜無為,需要后天能量的滋養,然后腦神不需要更多的有為行為,便能使人之精神得以清明,形體得以安泰,所謂“元氣入鼻,灌泥丸也。所以神明,

      形固安也。”心神則運動不已,變化多端:“心則神也,變化不測,無定形也。”五臟神因此而產生:“所以五藏藏五神也;魂在肝,魄在肺,精在腎,志在脾,神在心。所以字殊,隨處名也。”

      其四,太一帝君實為天界至上神靈,天人同構,腦為人體之天,所以腦神亦為“太一帝君在頭”,先天而生,與大道同體,亦即唐宋以降內丹學所謂的元神,正如張伯端所說:“元神者,乃先天以來一點靈光也。”

      心神受腦神依照后天而成,張伯端稱之為欲神,“欲神者,氣稟之性也”。因受各種因素影響,心神有正有邪,既為禍根,又為道本。所謂“變化莫測,混合陰陽;大包天地,細入毫芒;制之則正,放之則狂;清靜則生,濁躁則亡;明照八表,暗迷一方。”

      其五,心神的活動只有符合腦神的虛寂和清凈無為的本性,才合乎大道,才有利于生命的健康長久。即“但能虛寂,生道自常;永保無為,其身則昌。”

      顯然,在《太上老君內觀經》中,腦神與心神的特征和相互關系,與《黃庭經》一樣,完全符合老子的思想。其他用老子的思想處理腦神與心神的關系,顯示出腦神相對于心神具有根本和至上地位的內容很多,無需一一列舉。

      同時,由于腦神的清靜無為和至高無上,正是建立在心神有為地主宰和調節人體生理活動的基礎之上,所以,其間的關系實際上也是一種體用關系,亦即腦主神明之體,心主神明之用,兩者相輔相成,缺一不可。正如《道樞?神景篇》所云:“天谷者,泥丸之宮也……。斯元神之府也。谷神,真一之至靈者也,其為吾之性歟,而心為其用焉。”

      現代著名的中醫學家張錫純已然接受了道教對心和大腦的這種認識,并將此運用于自己的醫學實踐。他說:“人之元神在腦,識神在心,心腦息息相通,其神明自湛然長醒”; “自古養生之家,皆以腦中之神為元神,心中之神為識神,元神者無思無慮,自然虛靈也;識神者有思有慮,靈而不虛也。然其所注重者在腦中元神,不在心中識神……” 等。

      綜上所述,在道教煉養學中,“心主神明”與“腦主神明”二說并存,“心主神明”與傳統醫學一致,而“腦主神明”與現代醫學有相通之處;道教又用老子的思想將其統一為一個和諧的整體,從而對人體生命給予了道家式的深刻解說。這顯然是頗具現實意義的,值得發掘研究。

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