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    余世存:老子那么智慧,為什么要反智呢?

    反智的人生

    說起老子的《道德經》,很多人以為老子在其中表達了一個重要思想:反智。不僅很多涉世未深的年輕學人把老子歸為“反智”一派大加嘲笑或批評,就是一些思想史家也作如此觀,如余英時先生說,“老子‘講無為而無不為’,事實上他的重點卻在‘無不為’,不過托之于‘無為’的外貌而已。故道家的反智論影響及于政治,必須以老子為始作俑者。”“我曾指出《老子》書中的政治思想基本上是屬于反智的陣營;而這種反智成份的具體表現便是權謀化。”……我們普通讀者讀老子,也常常困惑于老子天下第一,老子絕頂聰明,卻又那樣明確地表示要“絕圣棄智”。

    老子真的反智嗎?

    看老子的教誨,似乎真的如此,“是以圣人之治,虛其心,實其腹;弱其志,強其骨。常使民無知無欲,使夫智者不敢為也。為無為,則無不治。”“絕仁棄智,民利百倍。”“民多智慧,而邪事滋起。”“古之善為道者,非以明民,將以愚之。民之難治,以其智多。故以智治國,國之賊,不以智治國,國之福。”……

    老子那么智慧,為什么要反智呢?老子真的反對他擁有的智慧嗎?我們需要這樣想問題,而不是如余英時那樣從表面的字句中去推論出老子是一個權謀者和獨裁者,“老子在此是公開地主張‘愚民’,因為他深切地了解,人民一旦有了充份的知識就沒辦法控制了。老子的‘圣人’要人民‘實其腹’、‘強其骨’,這確是很聰明的,因為肚子填不飽必將挺而走險,而體格不健康則不能去打仗或勞動。但是‘圣人’卻決不許人民有自由的思想(‘虛其心’)和堅定的意志(‘弱其志’),因為有了這兩樣精神的武器,人民便不會輕易地奉行‘圣人’所訂下的政策或路線了。”余英時的老子觀有相當的普遍性,即斷章取義,為己所用。

    要知道,老子絕非矛盾得人格分裂,孔子稱道過,“老子猶龍。”“圣人”在老子筆下也絕非如余英時推論出的是一個獨裁者,相反是一個“功成而弗居”的德者。只要看看《道德經》中有關圣人的表述就清楚,“是以圣人處無為之事,行不言之教,生而不有,為而不恃,功成而弗居。”“是以圣人抱一,為天下式。不自見故明,不自是故彰,不自伐故有功,不自矜故長。”“故圣人云,我無為而民自化,我好靜而民自正,我無事而民自富,我無欲而民自樸。”……

    關于老子反智的矛盾、困惑甚至不需要從老子的言論中尋找答案,只要我們反求諸己,我們就能明白老子的“反智”并非反對“智慧”。只要看看我們的生活,一方面是技術、工具充斥日用,一方面是大量的修行、養生言論,是相互提醒告誡要“安頓”、“平安”、“靜好”等等的智慧,我們就大體明白老子的反智并非指智慧。從《道德經》中可以看到,老子對知、智、明三個字的用法是有區別。老子的“知”,一般指“了解”、“知道”,這不是他所要否定的。老子否定的知,是人的欲念。所謂“常使民無知無欲,使夫智者不敢為也。”這里的“智”,正是老子強烈質疑和反對的,他是指“以知識為工具而行詐偽之事”的“巧智”,是我們常說的耍小聰明。至于智慧,老子一般用“明”來表示,是體“道”知“常”的最高智慧。所謂“知人者智,自知者明”。而老子的“愚”,并非愚昧,而是樸實無華的意思。

    為老子“反智”正名,對我們普通人也有重要的意義。這讓我們更加明白,以老子的智慧,他跟我們普通人一樣感同身受,他跟我們一樣反對獨裁者、專橫者的自作聰明。我們應該把加諸老子身上的陰謀色彩去掉,恰恰相反,老子是反對陰謀、權術的,老子要求的,是真正的智慧。

    甚至智慧,在我們文化里未必是一個好的人生品質。從孔子開始,中國人都喜歡笨一些老實一些的人。孔子弟子多多,但他最喜歡老實的顏回。我曾經說“活到今天,越來越理解孔子的人生,其中尤其理解孔子為什么喜歡顏回。人們都太聰明了,因此張狂、投機、勢利,追求一夜暴發,三五年有成,或畢其功于一役。我多次告誡自己和身邊的年輕朋友,要笨一些,勤奮一些,要做足笨工夫。”這其實也是對老子“反智”的極好解釋。當然,蘇東坡、鄭板橋更沉痛地說過,“難得糊涂。”

    詩人穆旦晚年有《智慧之歌》:“但唯有一棵智慧之樹不凋,/我知道它以我的苦汁為營養,/它的碧綠是對我無情的嘲弄,/我咒詛它每一片葉的滋長。”這樣的詩文同樣是沉痛的。

    因此,我們的人生之路有很多選擇,維特根斯坦曾說,希望自己既明智又好。可見,西方思想家也注意到,智慧不一定就是好的。

    至于老子的“反智”,我后來更發現,老子對一般智慧確實看不大起。從天地四時四方之學來說,跟孔子克己復禮歸仁不同,老子是絕仁棄智的。我們說過,仁屬于東方之學、春天之學;禮屬于南方之學、夏天之學;智屬于北方之學、冬天之學……孔子希望走向活潑潑的春天夏天,老子則放棄一時一地的歸屬,他希望的是歸于道,歸于圓滿。

    這也是現代人念茲在茲的,人是目的。人生不應該過成“類人孩”,不應該過成“書齋”的科學家或知識分子,不應該過成官家商家,不應該過成虛無的中年人或陰謀的老人……因為一個孩子還不是一個人,一個科學家、大師和知識分子還不是一個人,一個官家商家還不是一個人,權謀、虛無還不是人……人實際上是你,是我,是那個為遙遠的全稱之你所完全映照的我。

    這就是人生的目的。

    選自余世存《微觀國學》,人民文學出版社

    老子:閑散地生活,才能收獲。

    孔子:把學習跟人生相結合,學習是人生至上的價值。

    莊子:人生之中總有些問題是不可能解決而只能取消的。

    墨子:做一個普通人,是一項了不起的成就。

    《易經》:讀易經,是對我們自身感覺心智的鍛煉。

    《禮記》:人要有自己的東西,自己的寶藏;人要修行,實踐;人要逍遙游于社會自然中,與天地精神相往來。

    面對這些每個人不可不解的生命課題,不僅需要技巧,更需要時間的打磨和生命的沉淀。

    那些自發的、靈動的、美好的東西,不應該從現代人的生命里消失。

    余世存,詩人、學者,畢業于北京大學中文系。湖北隨州人,現居北京。做過中學教師、報社編輯、公務員、志愿者。曾任《戰略與管理》執行主編,《科學時報》助理總編輯。主持過十年之久的“當代漢語貢獻獎”。已出版的主要作品:《立人三部曲》《非常道:1840—1999年的中國話語》《老子傳》《人間世:我們時代的精神狀況》《家世》《大時間:重新發現易經》《東方圣典》(主編)等。

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