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    水與老子的處世智慧

    孔子深刻體察過寄情山水者的不同文化心態,指出:“智者樂水,仁者樂山。”老子作為樂水的智者,從自然水性中體悟到了充滿智慧的處世之方。

    水首先是一種柔弱之物,它不逞堅強,但長久的韌性卻使它具有滴水穿石之效,堅強的石頭反為柔弱的水所戰勝。老子由此認定:“天下莫柔弱于水,而攻堅強者莫之能勝”,并提出了柔弱勝剛強的貴柔論。

    老子進一步將這種觀點提升到人生的高度,指出:“堅強者,死之徒;柔弱者,生之徒”,將堅守柔弱視為人們謀取生存的有效方式。主張柔弱處世的老子,始終認為“柔之勝剛,弱之勝強,天下莫不知”。他的貴柔守弱,本質上是一種樂觀、豁達、蔑視強大而不失自信的處世理念。

    水追求下位而安于卑賤,不與物爭,所以不會引起紛爭和失敗;同時又善待萬物,促成萬物生長,因而深得眾物喜愛。老子由此悟出了一條重要的處世原則:要卑謙、要忍讓,要善處下位,盡量助益他人,以消弭紛爭,避免失敗,贏得人心。

    他認為“上善若水”,最好的處世方法是像水一樣,善利萬物而不爭;正因為不爭,故而沒有失敗之憂,并能使人們樂于推戴。老子從善利萬物的水性引申出了寬厚的為人之道,他主張:“善者,吾善之;不善者,吾亦善之,德善矣!”即對那些與自己友好的和不友好的人,都以善意對待,以此成就德性和功業。這就是水般的處世方式。

    曹雪芹在《紅樓夢》中敘述薛寶釵處事平和、內斂、寬厚,說她“罕言寡語,人謂藏愚;安分隨時,自云守拙。”又說她“不比黛玉孤高自許,目下無塵,故比黛玉大得下人之心。”這一情況客觀上印證了老子處世方式的有效性。

    老子按照效法自然的思路,將他的處世原則作了概括:“吾有三寶,寶而持之;一曰慈,二曰儉,三曰不敢為天下先。”在他看來,人生的路途艱難崎嶇,世事難料,但一個人只要持有如水那樣慈善利物、儉樸單純、守弱不爭的三件法寶,就一定能柔而致勝,體會到人生的達觀和舒美。

    ◎本文原載于《光明日報》(作者馮立鰲,廣東省社會科學院哲學所研究員),圖源網絡,圖文版權歸原作者所有。

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